Swadeshi Movement: Essay, Article, Paragraph, Speech

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Swadeshi Movement: Essay, Article, Paragraph, Speech

Essay on Swadeshi Movement

Swadeshi Moment was the nationalist movement which started when the British Government announced the partition of Bengal. It was a massive movement which involved the participation from all the section of society from ranging from students, workers to the woman and other parts of the community. It was the first time that such a massive outcry took place in India that not only united the country but also helped the people to realize that it was a time when Britishers should leave India. Although the Swadeshi movement was massive, due to certain drawback, this movement ultimately lost its momentum. Nevertheless, it prepared the stage for future movements.

Story behind the movement

During December 1903, the British government decided to divide the Bengal into two states, East Bengal and West Bengal.  The reasons given by the government were as follows:

Bengal being the most populated state (about 78 million), which was about one-fourth the population of the British India was difficult to administrate.

The national leader realized the real motive of the government which was to break the state into two parts on the lines of religion and language, thereby curbing the national movements.

Reason behind the division

The main principle was to divide and rule. In this case, the division of the state was as follows

  • Along the lines of religion in which the eastern state would be dominated by the Muslim community, while the western state would be dominated by the Eastern community.
  • According to the language basis, they cunningly devised the division so that Bengalis become a minority in their state, especially Hindu Bengalis. The western side was dominated by Hindi and Oriya people, whereas the eastern state was dominated by Muslim Bengalis.

This was a favorable division as it would divide the United Bengal and would breed embrittlement among the people.

Initial reaction of people

At the time of the announcement, the Congress was ruled by the moderates who sought to memorandums, articles and other nonaggressive methods to should create resentment to the government. A big blow came to the nation when Government on July 1905 announced the formal division of the Bengal. All the people went out to the streets organizing riots and meetings were organized to boycott foreign products.

Swadeshi Movement

On August 7, 1905, with the passage of Boycott Resolution in a large meeting held in the Calcutta Townhall, the formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made. When the division was formally announced on October 16, 1905, the day was observed as mourning day where people sang Bande Mataram and rachis were worn by Hindu-Muslims as a sign of brotherhood.

The split in Congress

As the news of Bengal division spread, many leaders started to gather masses for the fight against the injustice. But, the method of the execution of plan created a difference between Moderates and Radicals. While moderates preferred passive aggression, radicals preferred active aggression and protest. The difference was so intense that on 1907 Surat meeting, the extremist left the Congress thereby decreasing the momentum and making the movement leaderless.

Eventual failure of movement

The movement brought about a massive riot and protested against the oppression of Government, but due to following reasons the movement eventually stopped:

  • Heavy oppression measures were taken by government
  • Most of the leaders were put back to jail, leaving the movement leaderless
  • The split of congress in Surat Meeting
  • The rise of Muslim communist who saw it as an opportunity to create new Muslim state

Conclusion on Swadeshi Movement: Essay, Article, Paragraph, Speech

Eventually, the partition was called off on 1911, and the capital was shifted from Kolkata to Delhi. Due to the movement, the idea of Swaraj or self-reliance became the sole purpose oSwadef all the leaders and people. This was the first movement people sought Swaraj and eventually became the role model for future movements.